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Location: Philippines



Comprehensive History of the Philippines


Disclaimer: This comprehensive reference called History of the Filipino People is game-based, conducted in this online platform NationStates, and is in no capacity whatsoever representing any equivalent in the real world. All data and information compiled here are not reflective of real life situations then and now. Great lengths have been taken to be as neutral and impartial as possible for fair coverage. Last update: February 2021

Humble Beginnings: First Seven Years of the Philippines

Foundation of the new region

Six months since the formal launch of NationStates in the web, the Filipino community founded a home in the region Philippines with three (3) initial members. On May 28, 2003, the first World Assembly (WA) Delegate of NationStates Philippines, Elvaraland, was elected. It would be succeeded by The Philippines1 in July 2003. By the time of its resignation in October 2003, Philippines had a membership of 10 nations. The region would have no delegate for two weeks until the election of Pancit Canton. Its tenure lasted only 10 days as Hukbalahap took the delegacy, serving in this position until June 2004. This would be the first time any delegate of the Philippines achieved six months of continuous service. Under its administration, membership stabilized at around 15 nations.

Lead-up to the Month of Four Delegates

If the historical Roman Empire had a year of four emperors, the Philippines would also have its own period of instability. Hukbalahap's successor to the delegacy, Mindanaw, would serve until December 2004. This was the second time a Filipino delegate had served six months in office. Then again, a whole month would pass until a new delegate was elected in the nation of Pili-nuts, assuming office in January 2005. Under Mindanaw, the Philippines reached a population of 20 members, but it had declined during the administration of Pili-nuts, returning to pre-2005 levels.

Upon the assumption of Einfuhlung as delegate in April 2005, the Philippines experienced another surge in membership, reaching 40 nations. However, it was a brief success. On August 1, 2005, Zonyasdao took the delegacy, only to be replaced within a week by kgb-cia-mi6. Muove would then succeed after another two weeks. On August 31, 2005, a new delegate in the nation of Guiuan ended the so-called Month of Four Delegates. However, damage had been done. Membership almost halved under Guiuan, with the Philippines having 25 nations. Nonetheless, Guiuan would become the 3rd delegate to serve for at least six months. It would be succeeded by Ma-i, who in its brief service from April to May 2006 would oversee doubling of the population to 52 members.

Unsustainable growth and decline

On May 17, 2006, a liberation of the Philippines required at least 40 defenders led by Texas to expel the invaders. This was the largest regional defense operation in record by this time. This facilitated the rise of Lenshow as delegate. Lenshow's administration, ending by July 2006, would continue the growth trajectory experienced under Ma-i, but the regional government was unable to sustain its success. By the time of the delegacy of The Normandy Islands, membership had returned to around 20 members, the lowest since 2005. The decline would worsen during the administration of Vatican XIII, when there were only 15 members remaining. After a brief return by Lenshow in July 2007, Eireann Go Brach assumed the delegacy and would serve until April 2008, the longest yet for any Philippine delegate. However, longevity did not translate to growth as the Philippines hit five (5) members by this time. There was also public dissatisfaction against Eireann Go Brach as delegate due to its supposed Irish provenance. On June 28, 2008, the Philippines would endure its second largest invasion yet, with 12 nations under Open Now seizing the delegacy.

Vatican's reemergence

Aeibeiria, serving only six weeks from July to August 2008, revived the region to raise membership back to 20 nations. Then again, the return of Vatican XIII on September 1, 2008 also signalled the return of the malaise plaguing the regional government. The new delegate locked the region with a password in fear of invasion. The population would not exceed single digits for most of its term, a situation that would not be resolved until the delegacy of Calamba Rebirth, who was elected in February 2009. Perhaps characteristic of its name, the population of the Philippines reverted to July 2008 levels during its administration.

Vacant delegacy

It would not be long, however, until the Philippines fell back to inactivity, culminating with Calamba Rebirth's loss of the delegacy on October 4, 2009. For three months and 13 days, the Philippines was without a delegate, the longest vacancy since 2004. It had also been reduced to single digit membership once more, going as low as four (4) nations by December. Calamba Rebirth would eventually regain the delegacy on January 17, 2010, but by this time, talks of refounding had surfaced.

Vatican's third term

After a short stint by Seendeal in June 2010, cut short by an invasion, the Philippines would again elect Vatican XIII by July for an unprecedented third term, the most non-consecutive terms ever served in the Philippines by this time. However, membership remained single digits with no real signs of improvement. After another month of vacancy, two more delegates would succeed Vatican XIII until the Philippines would be officially refounded on January 17, 2011 by Puan Puri Naduk.

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Philippines Refounded: New Era from Sky Cylcone to Rochester-Marner

Sky Cylcone Administration

With an initial population of four (4) members, the Philippines was refounded with Sky Cylcone as the first delegate of the region's new era in NationStates. Significant development such as the creation of an external forum, the introduction of roleplaying, and the crafting of the regional constitution were the hallmarks during its service, which lasted until June 17, 2011. The new regional constitution, introduced on April 20, 2011 by Maharlika Islands, would be ratified by the following nations: Philippines 2015, Wolficity, Sky Cylcone, and Maharlika Islands. This designated the delegate as Secretary-General, the vice delegate as Assistant Secretary-General, and created the Regional Assembly as the governing body. Three ministries were formed: Defense, Justice, and Foreign Affairs. The first ministers to fill these positions were Schoolgirl (Defense Minister) and Guiuan (Justice Minister). By the end of Sky Cylcone's term, there were about 16 members in the region, the 1,000th largest in the world in terms of population size.

On April 13, 2011, the Philippines was featured.

Guiuan's Second Wind

Upon the conclusion of the first ever elections under the 2011 Regional Constitution, Sky Cylcone was elected delegate while Maharlika Islands was elected vice delegate on May 31, 2011. However, the delegacy would soon pass its reins to Guiuan, its second term since 2005, after Sky Cylcone's resignation. Rochester-Marner, while expressing intent to become Foreign Affairs Minister, did not have the position eventually with Guiuan appointing Sky Cylcone to the ministry. Guiuan had instead placed Rochester-Marner in its former position in the Ministry of Justice.

Guiuan's troubles, however, marred much of its administration as Maharlika Islands threatened to quit the vice delegacy. Foreign relations also faced difficulty. While a net total of 13 new embassies were built under Sky Cylcone, only four embassies were opened under Guiuan. Meanwhile, Defense Minister Schoolgirl had forwarded an aggressive stance for the Philippines to take military action through raiding. While Sky Cylcone, in its capacity as Foreign Affairs Minister, opposed the idea of invading unfriendly regions, a number of member nations willingly joined Schoolgirl under the guise of joint military exercises. On the other hand, membership stabilized under Guiuan's administration, exceeding no more than 19 nations.

Rochester-Marner Administration

Owing to internal issues, Guiuan had resigned on September 17, 2011, with Justice Minister Rochester-Marner rising to the top position. A constitutional crisis grappled the new delegate early on, as no election had taken place to legitimize Rochester-Marner's assumption of office. The Regional Assembly saw it fit to allow the new delegate to serve its tenure, and new appointments were made. Succeeding Rochester-Marner in the Ministry of Justice was the founder itself, Puan Puri Naduk, while the inactive Schoolgirl was temporarily replaced by Northern Mindanao in the Ministry of Defense.

Further inactivity and instability, however, plagued the Rochester-Marner administration despite being capable of keeping the population at 20 members, with the founder ceasing to exist at least twice. Foreign relations also suffered as eight embassies closed under its administration.

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Under the Old Guard's Shadow: Building the Ariusgrad Administration in the Midst of Intense Opposition

Ariusgrad's unlikely election

On January 28, 2012, the resignation of Rochester-Marner marked the third one since the Philippines was refounded. An election, the first constitutionally mandated since May, saw the emergence of Ariusgrad on January 31 as the new delegate. However, it was not welcomed by many in the Old Guard, the original members of the Philippines who helped the founder facilitate the refounding operations a year earlier. Faced by such intense opposition, it was initially thought that its administration would not last, considering the already unstable regional conditions.

Joining the Philippines on August 21, 2011, its first and only home region, Ariusgrad was taken as an outsider to the regional government early on, having received no appointments despite its active World Assembly membership. Sky Cylcone even publicly discouraged the endorsement of Ariusgrad by fellow WA members because it was deemed "unfit" at the time despite Ariusgrad's rationalization of the benefits of cross-endorsements, an early principle that would not be appreciated until later on. As if this ostracization was not sufficient, Ariusgrad was barred from forum activity until after Rochester-Marner's resignation.

Initial Ariusgrad reforms

Observing the decay of the external forums (based in a now-defunct platform), Ariusgrad decided to move activity towards creating a regional website. Launched February 3, 2012, it was the first ever website dedicated for the use of NationStates Philippines. The Ariusgrad administration was also swift in revising the regional constitution, ratifying the new one with Ariusgrad, Indang, and Sky Cylcone as signatories. Following this ratification, the roles of Secretary-General and Assistant Secretary-General were transformed into President and Vice President, respectively. The Cabinet was also reorganized, adding the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the three ministries already established last year to help govern regional activity and growth.

The government composition reflected Ariusgrad's appreciation of the regional dynamics at this time. Knowing the Old Guard's contempt of its ascension as delegate, only one of them was appointed to a position in Ariusgrad's first Cabinet. This was Wolficity, the co-founder of the Philippines accompanying Puan Puri Naduk in the 2011 refounding, which Ariusgrad placed as Defense Minister. The rest were Ariusgrad's peers in terms of age, namely Party Poison (Foreign Affairs), The Third Nova Terra of Scrin (Domestic Affairs), and Monfortia (Justice). Meanwhile, Paldrov was elected as Vice President.

Also in February 2012, Ariusgrad began an information campaign to laud national and regional accomplishments, a tradition the Philippines still practices to this day. Roleplaying, encouraged for interested members, would continue under the Ariusgrad administration. Foreign relations was also a priority for the new administration, as 16 new embassies were created within a month, a number unmatched by the three previous delegates. By May 2012, membership reached 40 nations. While the greatest since refounding, it would still be comparable to 2005 levels.

The rift widens: Erosion of founder confidence with the delegacy

On April 1, 2012, one of the region's new embassy allies moved in a unit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force to the Philippines. Indang, Sky Cylcone, and Maharlika Islands were quick to protest this action, citing regional sovereignty as basis. However, Ariusgrad justified the action as of "noble intention" and allowed the unit to stay to help bolster defense operations. When this was followed by subsequent movements, notably from Tropical Islands and the Central Pacific Empire, as well as a minor controversy regarding going against the majority vote of the Philippines in one WA resolution, Puan Puri Naduk decided to revoke delegate powers and made the position non-executive on July 12, 2012.

The following days featured heated discussions with Puan Puri Naduk accusing Ariusgrad of using puppet nations to control regional affairs and attacked the delegate's activity generation program as "self-promotion." Ariusgrad's cross-endorsement principle, which included focusing the most endorsements to the current delegate, was labeled as "dictatorial" and "undemocratic", to the point of criticizing Ariusgrad's election as "sheer luck" for having the "highest number of votes" at the time. Ultimately, achievements in expanding the number of embassies was eventually downplayed, despite the opening of relations with significantly large regions such as The South Pacific, Gay, and Japan. Critics also made an issue out of Ariusgrad establishing ties with Muslim regions, a bane to the Christian-majority region, making deals with suspected "invaders," and entering informal discussions with game created regions (GCRs) such as The North Pacific and The East Pacific.

While reasons leading to the erosion of confidence was not fully elaborated by critics among the Old Guard, it had to be noted that the points of contention being brought against Ariusgrad were without sufficient basis in fact. The puppet nations issue was derived from the presence of another nation that also ended with -grad, namely Rapsgrad and Germingrad, during this time. This was an absurd observation because even to this day, there would be 300 or so nations in the NS world with a similar name construction. Ariusgrad admitted that it never used any puppet nation. Meanwhile, calling Ariusgrad lucky for receiving the most votes did not make any sense. In any democratic setup, receiving the highest vote share defined the election winner. Lastly, the early coalition-building efforts of Ariusgrad in the midst of an invasion-prone region was obviously mistaken as befriending invader regions. Despite the harsh criticisms, Ariusgrad pledged to continue working as non-executive delegate, the first Philippines delegate to be deprived of official delegacy powers.

Revived recruitment campaign and coalition-building

On July 31, 2012, elections were called with Ariusgrad winning unanimously, receiving all seven (7) votes cast. Membership had stabilized at around 30 nations when the election was held. However, with Puan Puri Naduk firmly restricting roles to himself, the region experienced stagnation as the region failed to regain at least 40 members for the rest of the year. Foreign relations also took a dive, as only three (3) new embassies were built in the next six months since the founder revoked delegacy powers, compared to 43 new embassies opened in the period January to July 2012. As Ariusgrad strived to work despite being reduced to a mere figurehead, Puan Puri Naduk unilaterally decided to amend the regional constitution by December 2012. Among its key proposals include decentralization, frequent elections, and government reorganization. The ministries would be streamlined to two, namely Foreign Affairs and Domestic Affairs, while the rest of the offices would be abolished, including the vice delegacy. The founder even labeled the vice president as "useless" despite Ariusgrad's rationale of the effectiveness of keeping the position to pile up the influence as the second most endorsed WA member of the region.

On January 22, 2013, the founder again ceased to exist, the first time during Ariusgrad's tenure. With this came also the death of charter change initiatives it launched a month earlier. While Puan Puri Naduk promised to return delegacy powers once Ariusgrad upheld the tradition of voting with the region in the World Assembly, it never honored its word. The executive roles of the delegate were only returned upon the demise of the founder. With regional security and growth on top of the agenda, Ariusgrad commissioned Domestic Affairs Minister The Third Nova Terra of Scrin, Kingdomanimalia, and Drigginar to launch a new recruitment campaign to attract prospective members. This appeared to have yielded results early, as the Philippines registered 50 members by February 2013. Among those who would join the Philippines at this time was Lanaograd, Former Vice President of the 100-nation Global Enterprise. Lanaograd would officially move to the Philippines on January 25, 2013.

Upon entering its first year in office, Ariusgrad also actively encouraged WA membership in the region, with delegate endorsement percentage maintained at around 80 percent. It was by this time that Ariusgrad theorized its "ready power for peace" principle, articulating that at least 20 percent of the total population should be in the World Assembly to have critical mass. With this so-called force in being built under the aegis of Ariusgrad's military praxis, the Philippines was able to send missions overseas such as with the defense of the Region of Reunited Muslim States (now United Empire of Islam), Japan, Iran, and The Greek Empire while keeping the region relatively safe from invasions. The Philippines was also an active contributor to liberation operations led by The South Pacific, Ten Thousand Islands Treaty Organization (TITO), Founderless Regions Alliance (now Founderless), and The United Defenders League (UDL), with units headed by Cavite, Hispannia, Nationalist Eminral Republic, New Ashford, and Lanaograd taking the frontlines. Ariusgrad's new wave of reforms received praises from a few of the surviving members of the Old Guard like Former WA Delegate Seendeal and WA Vice Delegate Wendel.

Founder instability raises calls for return of delegacy powers

It would not be long until Puan Puri Naduk returned from inactivity, relegating Ariusgrad once more as a placeholder. The founder pinned the blame on the delegate when the Eastern Roman Empire (ERE) Alliance placed a unit as defense assistance, declaring that the Philippines was not part of the ERE Alliance. Ariusgrad's rationale was non-membership in the alliance should not mean expelling friendly forces, but the founder shut down the delegate's appeal. Puan Puri Naduk's resurrection negatively affected membership, reducing the Philippines below 40 nations by April 2013.

Meanwhile, even before the founder's fall into inactivity on July 31, 2013, Old Guard members supportive of Ariusgrad such as Wendel began to campaign for the return of executive powers to the delegacy. This was supported by newer members such as Tundunistan and New Ashford. Others, such as Vatican XIII, saw the need to password lock the region once more, a proposition that Ariusgrad had publicly rejected along with most of the members who believed in Ariusgrad's message of openness.

Puan Puri Naduk's firm opposition to these calls did not deter Ariusgrad from initiating more reforms, such as the Topic of the Week launched on June 8, 2013 to spur exchanges among members and non-members alike. Discussion on mergers also began, with similarly Filipino-themed regions such as Philippine Wing Islands, Filipino, Katipunan Union, Ecnavian Federation, and Allied Nation for Transparency (ATN) having members move eventually to the Philippines. Other activities such as the Philippine Basketball Championship (launched by Makati on July 5) and the Philippine Olympics (launched by Ariusgrad on July 7) were conducted to further boost engagement among member nations, in addition to the roleplaying which still continued to this day. By August 2013, there were 55 member nations in the Philippines. Membership would stabilize at around this number for the rest of the year.

Philippine Regional Convention and Aftermath

On August 4, 2013, Ariusgrad approved the implementation of Carlos Harry's proposal to assemble the Philippine Regional Convention, a project aimed to expand the region's presence in the NationStates forums and create an alliance of Filipino-themed regions. On August 21, New Ashford proposed the name Organization of Filipino Nations in hopes of another refounding. This, however, did not push through in creating a new region as the merging process with the aforementioned regions began. Instead, the forum had become another platform for robust roleplaying activity.

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Battling Invasions and Managing Internal Conflict: The Ariusgrad Administration from 2014 to 2016

Into Ariusgrad's second year

The flurry of activity and growth provided an image of a strong medium-sized region as Ariusgrad entered its second year of service in 2014. By this time, Ariusgrad had solidified its regional record as the longest serving WA Delegate of the Philippines. The population of the Philippines broke through 70 members by February 2014.

Calls for election, this time led by Kiveria, had been receiving some support, although a majority still adhered to the principle articulated by Ariusgrad to conduct elections only upon provision of law. The low turnout for the May 2011 and the July 2012 elections (3 voters and 7 voters, respectively) discouraged the Philippines from holding the democratic process too frequently despite the impressive population growth in the past months. Also, an earlier referendum had mandated that elections should only be implemented when the regional majority required it by passage of an election law. The constitution also provided such a clause. However, to satisfy the desire for government change, Ariusgrad conducted a revamp of the regional government. The Minister of Justice had been abolished, owing to the rarity of constitutional cases and disputes being brought to the regional level. The Third Nova Terra of Scrin retained its portfolio as Domestic Affairs Minister. Ariusgrad then appointed New Ashford as Foreign Affairs Minister, and Vatican XIII as Defense Minister. Wendel was elected Vice President. It had to be noted that Vatican XIII and Wendel were part of the Old Guard.

Ariusgrad's approval rating rose from 57 percent before the revamp to 70 percent after the revamp, indicating the success of its intent to increase member satisfaction. However, the return of Puan Puri Naduk as founder proved to be another hurdle for Ariusgrad.

The Wendel coup and the Self-Strengthening Movement

On March 4, 2014, Vice Delegate Wendel usurped the delegacy from Ariusgrad. It took two days before the delegacy would return to Ariusgrad. While Wendel disavowed any involvement in the swift coup, which happened almost overnight, there were members who believed that it was a power move by the founder to finally take vengeance on Ariusgrad, who had been in position for so long. Puan Puri Naduk's silence on the matter did not help quell Ariusgrad supporters, including Wendel itself, from nurturing a sense of suspicion. Just two weeks prior, the founder returned from another inactivity streak. This conspiracy was seen to have been supported by remnants of the Old Guard, some of which had only maintained a facade of cooperation with the Ariusgrad administration while still harboring resentment despite the region's success.

Understanding how internal conflict might show vulnerability of the region to raiders, and taking into mind the instability of the founder, Ariusgrad believed that only significantly increasing membership and their engagement would be the way to decrease the invasion risk. By April 2014, the Philippines registered 80 nations, and by July 2014, the Philippines ranked in the 150 largest regions in terms of population. On September 9, 2014, the Philippines registered high regional power for the first time. This had become known as the first Self-Strengthening Movement, which took pattern from Ariusgrad's early efforts at building up a standing and professional defense force.

While the founder finally decided to restore the delegate's powers after the Wendel coup, its opposition to Ariusgrad remained. Puan Puri Naduk barred the region from joining defense operations, citing tag raiding as making the existence of a founder virtually useless because invaders had developed tactics to remove massive numbers of WA delegates. Despite this ban, Ariusgrad remained supportive of having select defense units participate in liberation operations. Among those with notable Filipino presence at this time were the defenses of Syria and Kingdom of Ireland.

Philippine McCarthyism, terror-tagging, and racism

Military hawks in the region, however, had become more vocal for the most part of 2014. Among their ranks were Nationalist Eminral Republic, Asigna, The Pearl of the Philippines, Filippinskiye, and Tlaxcala and Mexico, who had repeatedly used the region's channels to tag undesirable elements as left-wing extremists, invaders, and non-members of the pure race. They advocated fascism as "what the Philippines deserves." They also advocated using a "more Filipino" name other than the Philippines to refer to the region, taking into consideration the historical origin of Philippines from Spain's King Philip. Some of the proposed names to replace the so-called "foreign-inspired" Philippines included Maharlika (noble) and Ang Bayan (country).

Among those who have been forced to leave the Philippines due to their tactics were Bendicion, Glorious Bendicion, Maria Clara, and The Philippine World Invasion Force. While some of them used to have a history of raiding in affiliation with The Black Hawks, Ariusgrad deferred to the wisdom of the member nations in building the trust for them, while calling for calm in general. Then again, this centrist and moderate approach ran counter against the founder's wishes, who eventually helped the military hawks expel the reformed raiders. Ariusgrad felt their military experience could have helped analyze better raiding and defending tactics, while tapping their intelligence network along the way. This was a blow to the Self-Strengthening Movement, with membership falling to 70 by November 2014 before strongly recovering to 90 a month later.

This phenomenon would be reminiscent of how Ariusgrad was earlier accused of dealing with "invaders" (like The Glorious Nations of Iwaku and Eientei Gensokyo) and opening relations with Muslim-themed regions. Supported by Puan Puri Naduk, the xenophobic military hawks had become representative of a new generation of the resentful Old Guard whose ideals of Christian democracy had in the process rejected inclusiveness and sustainability for a caring community. When the Pope visited the Philippines on January 15, 2015, the flag of the Philippines was temporarily changed by Puan Puri Naduk with the Vatican flag for five days, and at least three Catholic-themed nations were allowed to stay indefinitely, in contrast with earlier protests against foreign presence in the region. Their Christian-centric philosophy also reflected in the liberation operations they participated in, such as with Coalition of Catholic States and The Christian Nations.

Ariusgrad would exhaust all efforts to reduce the racist, xenophobic, and right-wing feelings among the Filipino population. Changes in the regional government were also made. Lanaograd, then Foreign Affairs Minister, was elected Vice Delegate, while Asigna was appointed in the Ministry of Domestic Affairs. When the Philippines became featured on March 1, 2015, Ariusgrad introduced its iconic slogan Unity, Stability, Progress as it addressed prevailing issues such as acceptance of non-Filipinos, greater participation in the international stage through the region's ready power for peace, and dealing with ultra-nationalist fervor in political matters.

First successful invasion vindicates Ariugrad's defense praxis

Despite the warm reception to Ariusgrad's new agenda, the expected cooperation with member nations had not translated to reality. The Self-Strengthening Movement was neglected due to the presence of the founder, who again deprived Ariusgrad of executive powers during the same month. As internal bickering once more grappled the region, invaders took the opportunity of striking the region in decline. With 50 members by March 23, 2015, only nine (9) were part of the World Assembly. Bassin's invasion with forces of The Black Hawks, while lasting only a day, was the first instance of a successful raid against the Philippines since Ariusgrad assumed office three years prior. This also provided great evidence of the vulnerability of the region from sudden targeted attacks. However, since the Philippines had strayed too far from Ariusgrad's defense principles, attributable in no small part to the Old Guard's continued opposition to its policies, the region had to endure four more successful invasions until the end of 2016, notably conducted by DEN and The Black Hawks. With an interval of only around three months between these successful raids, there was little time to rebuild whatever was gained during the Self-Strengthening Movement. Membership fluctuated from the range of 50 to 100, depending on the prevailing circumstances.

Asigna's challenge: The 2016 Snap Election

On June 3, 2016, Asigna announced its intention to campaign for delegacy, even though there was no election scheduled by this time. This was also done with bad timing, as the Philippines had just flushed out raiders which claimed to have originated from The Kingdom of Great Britain, but were actually part of a larger invader coalition that included Hydra and The Axis Alliance of Nations. The invasion force brought in 40 raiders to overwhelm local Filipino defenses. Ariusgrad, regaining the delegacy on May 28 after three days of continuous fighting as head of the defender coalition, at first sidelined Asigna's noisy campaign which used blatant slogans such as Hoy kayo mga g*g@! Asigna para sa tunay na pagbabago! (Hey there morons! Asigna for real change!) and B*llsh*t to them all raiders. Besides, Asigna along with a number of the military hawks fled the Philippines during its time of need. It was believed Asigna's courage was derived from the founder's return from inactivity, who for almost a year since July 2015 had ceased to exist.

Vesilen Island, Ariusgrad's former vice delegate prior to the election of Lanaograd, agreed to many of Asigna's platforms, even though they were mostly diffuse, vague, and based on rant-like slogans. Among its key pledges were to make WA membership mandatory and to initiate government reorganization. Soon, the Asigna-Vesilen Island tandem was created, and no criticisms were spared against Ariusgrad's policies, although it had to be noted that for a third time since Ariusgrad began service, Puan Puri Naduk had removed executive powers from the delegate. Asigna's leadership style, however, was seen by some observers as "dictatorial" and "personality-based." Its call for unity and decentralization was noted to be ironic because of the divisive and totalitarian nature the Domestic Affairs Minister had been running its campaign so far.

With the founder agreeing to a week-long election from June 10 to 17, Ariusgrad was forced in a quandary to refocus efforts in dealing with the Asigna challenge. Lanaograd was nominated as Ariusgrad's vice delegate. Building on its four-year record of keeping the regional peace, fighting for freedom, and sending out contingents to liberation missions despite the founder's multiple moments of inactivity, Ariusgrad turned out to be a reluctant campaigner. There was a moment in the campaign trail that Ariusgrad offered to resign in lieu of Asigna. However, many insisted to keep the democratic process going, and so Ariusgrad respected the democratic choice. With 12 of 55 members voting, Ariusgrad was elected for an unprecedented new term as delegate (58 percent), while Vesilen Island was elected vice delegate. Recognizing Lanaograd's career, Ariusgrad reappointed the said nation to the Foreign Affairs Ministry. The rest of the ministers retained their positions, including Asigna itself. This was a display of magnanimity on the part of Ariusgrad for the election losers. Meanwhile, Ariusgrad also lamented the relatively low turnout. It expected at least double the last election's turnout, but there was no changing the results, and Ariusgrad had to move forward strengthening a vulnerable region with a renewed mandate.

Another bid of charter change as Philippines commemorates fifth anniversary

In August 2016, Ariusgrad spearheaded preparations for the month-long commemoration of the 5th anniversary of the Philippines since refounding. With the theme Our Past as the Foundation of our Future, another Philippine Olympics was conducted. Meanwhile, a recruitment campaign under Islamic Sulu was undertaken. Due to these renewed efforts, membership rose to around 65 nations.

At around the same time, calls for amending the regional constitution arose once more. Recognizing the merits of updating the charter, Ariusgrad agreed to let the process begin. The 2016 constitutional convention, however, was interrupted by another invasion by the Royal Albion Legion (now United Imperial Armed Forces) on September 17, 2016, a mere four days since the founder ceased to exist. An initial force of 20 raiders moved in, reinforced by 10 more, occupied the region until a defense coalition assisted local forces led by The Secular State of the Philippines (a former DEN raider later forming the Philippine Army to contribute units to overseas missions) to elevate Defense Minister Jose Maria Sison as temporary delegate on September 24. After removing all raiders and restoring ejected members, Ariusgrad regained the delegacy on September 26. The rationale behind this move was to preserve the growing influence of Ariusgrad, which it had been piling since its assumption of office four years back.

Setting up a regional password, overwhelmingly rejected by 80 percent of the vote last year, was more welcomed by December 2016 with 79 percent in favor. However, the founder stood by Ariusgrad's stance this time to keep the region open. Public opinion would later shift again in opposition to a password.

Sharing the One World: Ariusgrad's campaign as World Assembly Secretary-General

With an overarching campaign message of sharing the one world, Ariusgrad threw its hat in the ring of the 2016 WA Secretary General elections. Making it to the second round despite a zero-spend campaign, Ariusgrad's single-digit showing failed the nation to qualify for the last election round. It eventually endorsed NewTexas of the region Texas, one of the traditional allies of the Philippines. However, Caelapes eventually won the said election to become the World Assembly's first Sec-Gen.

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Founderless but Flourishing: The Ariusgrad Administration from 2017 to 2019

The Second Self-Strengthening Movement and Early Fruits of Coalition Building

The year 2017 would be a precarious moment for the Philippines. On September 24, the founder Puan Puri Naduk would cease to exist for the last time, never again returning to NationStates. A considerable number of the Old Guard had also lapsed into inactivity, although remnants had leaned towards support of the Ariusgrad administration since.

Taking heed of the lessons from the past invasions, Ariusgrad would endeavor to further strengthen coalition-building efforts for extended deterrence. Among those which the Philippines would work with by this time were The Free Nations Region, Australia, The Western Isles, Yggdrasil, The League of Conservative Nations, Spear Danes, The Order of Grey Wardens, and Union of Allied States. As mentioned earlier, the Philippines already worked traditionally with other large defender regions such as TSP, Founderless, Force, and TITO. Regional membership also increased to around 100 nations during the first half of the year.

On July 3, invaders from DEN and The Black Hawks tried to make their presence felt by having 10 of them pile their endorsements on Defense Minister Jose Maria Sison. It took only a day for Ariusgrad to regain the delegacy on July 4. A larger invasion of 50 raiders then placed Josei Tenno Kawaii as delegate on July 22. However, in a swift operation, local defense units assisted by Yggdrasil and its allied forces took out the invaders within the day. The improved efficiency of the defense in the Philippines was seen as a challenge by invaders, which used to require lesser numbers in achieving their objectives in the medium-sized region.

Jose Maria Sison's revolution

On September 21, 2017, Defense Minister Jose Maria Sison seized the delegacy with 10 units of the local forces in the pretext of a supposed raid by KAISEREICH. Wariness of an invasion was high especially since Japan and Singapore, two of the region's embassy allies, experienced occupation by raider forces early in September. While the invasion against the Philippines was nipped from the bud, the real mission was not yet accomplished. It turned out the Ariusgrad administration would be displaced by a provisional government under Jose Maria Sison. Upon declaring a provisional government, Jose Maria Sison called for an election scheduled on September 23. This power grab, however, was not met with as much enthusiasm from the populace. With the collapse of this provisional government, Jose Maria Sison saw it fit to escape to The Socialist States of the Philippines. Ariusgrad would assume once more the delegacy on October 10, 2017, with The Secular State of the Philippines appointed to the Ministry of Defense, and Ecnav Enitsuj assuming the role of Vice Delegate. Ecnav Enitsuj joined the region on July 17, 2016. This untimely revolution, however, rolled back much of the gains of the Second Self-Strengthening Movement. Membership was almost halved to stabilize at around 65.

One of the World's Greatest Victories: The 2017 Christmas Invasion

Despite influence growth among integral members of the region, there was little more for the Philippines to contribute to defense operations outside its home region by this time, especially after the damaging September revolution and the permanent loss of the region's founder. There were only small deployments to allied regions such as Katipunan, Angvar, and ASEAN, all of which had significant Filipino contingents then. This seemingly fragile structure would be challenged by The Black Hawks, which with its invader coalition that included The Roman Empire and The Imperium of Agia Germania sent an initial force of 20 raiders on December 17, 2017. They would immediately reinforce this with 10 more raiders. What sprung into action to come to the aid of the Philippines was the new defender network built under the Ariusgrad administration. This coalition, composed of renowned forces such as The South Pacific, The East Pacific, Texas, The Rejected Realms, The Order of the Grey Wardens, The Union of Democratic States, Caer Sidi, Lily, Spiritus, 10000 Islands, The Guards (Shinka), Renegade Islands Alliance, Aenaroth, and Force, formed a 25-strong liberation force to augment local defense units headed by Ariusgrad as defender lead. The liberation force, assembled within a matter of 12 hours, was seen as a testament to the coalition building efforts of the Philippines even by this time.

What seemed to be an easy liberation was swiftly thwarted by the invasion force, which added 50 more raiders (some of which were with high influence levels) to swamp the defenders out of contention. During this time, the locals began to provoke the raiders, which merely served as cover for organizing an even larger force. A second operation was launched on December 23, with 68 nations closely coordinated to endorse the vice delegate this time. It met success as the defender coalition finally expelled a total of 80 invaders from the Philippines. The mopping operations took almost four weeks, with Ariusgrad returning as delegate on January 21, 2018. Dubbed locally as the region's greatest victory against the world's strongest invaders and the administration's timely Christmas gift for its constituents, external observers had seen the liberation of the Philippines as one of the year's largest defense operations.

Among the important lessons derived from this large-scale operation that involved a 14-region coalition were the cross-endorsement principle and the influence piling concept. This was probably the first time in modern NS history that such military theories had been observed in action with an operation of this size. Prior to the invasion, the Philippines was composed of a small yet cross-endorsing core group for a defensive structure, all parts of which have built high levels of influence that it would be difficult to eject any of the local defenders. The WA endorsement level for the delegate was maintained at around 80 percent of total WA membership. This was more pronounced with Ariusgrad, who had achieved virtual founder status because its significantly high influence was around ten times greater than the next in line, that of Vice Delegate Ecnav Enitsuj. In contrast, the invaders were sparsely endorsing each other, with most endorsements focused only on their lead A Raid for the Raid Gods. They employed a point-only endorsement tactic which primary objective was to seize the delegacy. This gave the defender coalition a quick impression that liberating the Philippines would be a walk in the park, as it would be near impossible to pile up such high levels of influence overnight. The fact that the invaders brought in an even larger force to maintain their occupation proved how the Philippines became a venue for an unforgettable decisive battle between raiders and defenders.

One post-liberation blunder, however, was on the part of Ecnav Enitsuj who in its capacity as temporary delegate "accidentally" removed a high-influence defender, causing its influence to suffer and significantly delay the cleaning operations.

Into Ariusgrad's Sixth Year: The Last Great Invasion against the Philippines

Ariusgrad would enter its sixth year in service as WA delegate with another revamp of the regional government. The Secular State of the Philippines was elected vice delegate, while Ecnav Enitsuj was appointed Defense Minister. The Foreign Affairs Ministry would be assigned to Hastiaka, and the Regional Affairs Ministry (formerly the Domestic Affairs Ministry) would be under Lanaograd's charge. Membership by this time reached a peak of 180, the largest yet in regional history.

It would not be long when the regional population would be halved to around 90, with the Philippines keen on giving back and contribute to defense operations abroad. However, this policy was taken advantage of by raiders led by South Eastern Ossetia from Lazarus, The West Pacific, Unknown, and The Roman Empire. Bringing in around 20 invaders to the region on March 24, 2018, they would be quickly removed by the international defense coalition supporting the Philippines. After a cleanup operation, Ariusgrad would become delegate once more on March 28, 2018.

This, however, appeared minor for what was to come. On November 12, 2018, The Raegerian Imperium, abetted by The Black Hawks, Europeia, Balder, and The Land of Kings and Emperors, deployed an initial force of 40 raiders to take the delegacy for Dominus Totalis, reinforced by 10 more under the lead of Dread Lord Sithis of The Dark Brotherhood. The situation was considered grave, since the Philippines had just endured the Christmas Invasion last year and the invaders threatened to add to their numbers like last time. This prompted Tinhampton to draft a liberation proposal for the Philippines, the first ever under the Ariusgrad administration. However, this was quietly dropped at the forum level considering how the defender coalition in cooperation with local units under Ariusgrad's lead took control of the situation. With around 30 defenders moving in from TITO, The Order of the Grey Wardens, The Guards, Spear Danes, and The Galactic Empire of Great Britain, the raiders were eventually taken out. Ariusgrad returned as delegate on November 21, 2018. This was only the second large-scale invasion since refounding that took over a week to resolve. One possible reason was the loss of the founder, which could have ejected unwanted nations with no influence cost. However, it must also be recalled that the first invasion to exceed a week in occupation in the Philippines happened despite the existence of the founder. This happened in February 2016. Therefore, longevity of an invasion force would not be solely correlated to founder presence, although it would be preferred by raiders to target founderless regions instead.

The Third Self-Strengthening Movement and The Year of Relative Calm

Notable for its remarkable lack of internal conflict and unsuccessful invasion attempts, 2019 became a period suitable to implement a Third Self-Strengthening Movement, which allowed the Philippines to maintain membership at around 80 nations. It also provided the opportunity to reopen embassies with historical allies, some of which had been inadvertently closed during the powerful invasions of the past years, and to create new embassy allies as well. Nonetheless, Ariusgrad remained just as popular as it was back then. A January 2019 poll found 57 percent approval of its administration, about the same level as it was five years ago. Activities such as roleplaying still continue at this time, with alternate timelines depicting the Philippines being worked in the forums.

One of the more notable raid attempts occurred on June 29, 2019, when 10 or so raiders were spotted to be building up a stronghold in the region. Allied defenders such as the Order of the Grey Wardens helped the Philippines remove the invaders even before they could develop an ample occupation force. This was a good example of the preemptive and anticipatory strategy honed by years of battling many invasions the Philippines could be proud of, and it was in no small part due to the defense policies Ariusgrad had long campaigned for despite intense opposition from all sides.

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Renewed Internationalization with Solid Foundations: The Ariusgrad Administration from 2020 to Present Day

COVID-19 awareness campaign

Out of genuine concern for member nations, Ariusgrad launched an information and awareness campaign to help fight COVID-19, then called nCov (novel coronavirus), as early as January 2020. This included catchy slogans, viral songs, and practical advice to keep the body healthy and safe. These steps were largely appreciated by the regional population.

Ariusgrad's Second Campaign for World Assembly Secretary-General

The 2020 WA Secretary General Election saw Ariusgrad reworking its previous campaign message into promoting a caring and a sharing community. However, it was seen bowing out early in the first round to endorse Kuriko as Secretary General and Salaxalans as Vice Secretary General, who would eventually win the said election.

Renewed calls for election and the 2020 Constitutional Convention

On April 16, 2020, Filipos raised the call for a general election of all regional officers. After receiving opposition from older members such as Seludong and Vice Delegate The Secular State of the Philippines, Filipos would later move to The North Pacific, then to The Democratic Republic. However, in recognition of the changing times, Ariusgrad polled the region on the issue of charter change. With 68 percent of 19 voters in favor, the Constitutional Convention was assembled on May 1, 2020. With few revisions to Ariusgrad's initial draft, the convention approved the charter.

Four days after being convened, on May 5, Ariusgrad and five members of the Constitutional Convention ratified the 2020 Regional Constitution. This would be the first successful charter change initiative since 2012, and had become reflective of the region's many core values, such as participatory, democratic, and republican ideals. The new constitution also provided for a new legislature. Never convening a legislature since 2003, the Philippines found itself with a Regional Congress composed of five members. Ariusgrad saw this as the spiritual successor to its earlier proposed Senate of the Philippines, which failed to receive sufficient nominations. It had to be noted though that with a membership exceeding 100 nations by this time, the Philippines had ample pool of qualified candidates to fill in the positions.

May 2020 Election

From May 11 to 15, 2020, the first election under the new constitution was conducted. Ariusgrad was uncontested, being voted unanimously by the region to continue as WA delegate. Meanwhile, the vice delegacy saw a change with The Secular State of the Philippines refusing to stand for reelection. It became a battle between Defense Minister Ecnav Enitsuj and Foreign Relations Minister Hastiaka, with the former winning 58 percent of the vote. The delegacy received 14 total votes, while the vice delegacy 12 total votes, a turnout comparable to past election cycles.

The Cabinet was revamped thereafter, with The Secular State of the Philippines returning as Defense Minister. Two new positions were created, with long-time member Menonten appointed as Sustainability and Innovation Minister, and Theo-Raeken (moving from the Union of Christian Nations) as Media Relations Minister. Lanaograd, meanwhile, was reappointed as Regional Affairs Minister after returning from a period of inactivity.

Joining the United Regions Alliance

From May 8 to 17, 2020, the Philippines sent a contingent to the Pacific Con under the leadership of Lanaograd. An interregional event hosted by the five Pacific regions, Ariusgrad saw it as an opportunity to expand the region's horizons to the international community, presenting the Philippines not only as a frequent venue of defenses, but also as an exemplar of diplomacy for all. This participation was also meant to rekindle the relations built historically by the Philippines with the Pacific regions. It was by this time when United Regions Alliance (URA) Founder Free Azell (Ellenburg) established communications through Lanaograd and invited the Philippines to join the alliance. The URA, founded on November 9, 2019, had around 30 member regions at this time.

While Ariusgrad was by all means open to the idea, memories of its past diplomatic missions being opposed by the independent-minded Old Guard prompted the delegate to be more cautious, deferring to the member nations to decide on the matter. By this time, Ariusgrad was the oldest continuous resident of the region, and when the region was allowed to discuss the matter, it was finally clear that the Old Guard's philosophy had been fully replaced by a new generation of Filipino community more open to internationalization. With the few opposition voices in the region immediately placated by assurances from the URA leadership, the Philippines was admitted to the alliance on June 1, 2020. Lanaograd was designated as voting representative of the Philippines, while Ariusgrad, Vesilen Island (Maginoo), and Manilenyos (Free Las Pinas) were designated as alliance consultants.

Keen on increased participation in the alliance, Ariusgrad encouraged Lanaograd to run for Head of Public Affairs in the July 2020 General Election, the first time the alliance held an election for the position. Winning with 51.5 percent of 66 votes cast, the only alliance candidate to come from the Philippines was elected.

Philippine Defense Force

On May 8, 2020, the Philippine Defense Force (PDF) was formally constituted with an inaugural membership of 15 nations as a centralized military organization dedicated to uphold regional integrity and sovereignty. Until the creation of the PDF, the Philippines depended on a decentralized military structure. There was also no clear-cut constitutional provision prior to 2020 mandating the creation of a military force, and so Ariusgrad had to organize the region's ready power for peace through coordinating with different defense units operating in and out of the Philippines. This resulted to some defenses suffering from lack of local support as some units choose to flee the region instead of staying to fight. With the PDF, this coordination process was focused on both the delegate as commander-in-chief and the defense minister as chief of staff. This improved the reliability of local defense organization.

The first real test of this new structure came on November 11, 2020, when Ariusgrad became subject of a commendation proposal drafted and campaigned for by WA Secretary General Kuriko. Due to the delegate's history of successful defenses, it was anticipated that invaders may try to soil Ariusgrad's track record by attacking the Philippines. Upon monitoring around 10 suspicious nations moving into the region, Ariusgrad appealed for the assistance of TITO and URA to keep the raiders in check while alerting the Philippine Defense Force to increase vigilance. All attempts were preempted throughout the duration of the vote in the World Assembly.

In February 2021, Fort Ilocandia initiated with the approval of Ariusgrad the fortress unit called Philippine Expeditionary Force to the Nations (PEFToN) to augment the PDF and assist in overseas defense operations. With an initial membership of three members, it has since doubled in size and increased its operational capacity. One of their first missions was the defense of Japan, an embassy ally of the Philippines.

Theo-Raeken's political struggle

Despite being appointed as Media Relations Minister, there were virtually no initiatives being implemented during Theo-Raeken's tenure. New activities such as mapmaking were introduced by United Bicolandia upon the approval of Ariusgrad. However, Ariusgrad retained confidence of its service until Theo-Raeken began to request more powers be granted to its office. After weeks of public protests, Ariusgrad decided on December 13, 2020 to reorganize the Cabinet, with the Ministry of Media Relations assigned to Kalayaan and Sabah Confederacy and the Ministry of Foreign Relations to Emperio Maharlika. Manilenyos was also considered for a position, but it had refused in consideration of its current service as minister in 10000 Islands with Free Las Pinas. Theo-Raeken, meanwhile, left the region and founded the South East Asian Union. This new region was said to be aimed at combating the Chinese.

Tenth anniversary and signing of the PCARI Declaration

On January 17, 2021, the Philippines entered its 10th year since refounding. In light of this, Ariusgrad had commissioned a number of new projects to commemorate the said milestone, including a regional publication and financing research to come up with this regional history. A revitalized recruitment program was also launched, with Emperio Maharlika, Kalayaan and Sabah Confederacy, and Manilenyos being assigned to lead the operations. A new agenda was also introduced to define the future trajectory of the Philippines as a region, namely solidarity, sustainability, anticipatory. Ariusgrad entered its ninth year of service with sky-high approval rating, having 100 percent in an October 2020 poll.

In connection to this, Ariusgrad also reviewed the number of mergers the Philippines experienced in the past, as well as previous offers of mergers (such as that of Union of Allied States). Taking note of the number of Filipino-themed regions that may wish to remain independent while fostering warmer relations with similar regions, Ariusgrad conceptualized the Philippine Council of Affiliated Regions and Institutions (PCARI) as a consultative body and open forum for the wider Filipino community. Ratified on February 8, 2021, this was composed of seven member regions and two member institutions, with the Philippines being council lead. Council membership was opened to all interested parties who would like to take part in embracing the Filipino in NationStates. Foreign relations also reached new heights, as 150 embassies have been maintained by the Philippines to date. The region also had active presence in more than 20 regions to date, notably the Pacifics and in embassy allies such as 10000 Islands and the URA.

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History of World Assembly Delegates from Elvaraland to Ariusgrad

1a. Delegate and President
Ariusgrad (February 6, 2012 - present)
Elected: July 31, 2012; June 17, 2016; May 15, 2020

Vice Delegate and Vice President
Ecnav Enitsuj (May 2020 - present)
Secular State of the Philippines (January 2018 - May 2020)
Ecnav Enitsuj (October 2017 - January 2018)
Vesilen Island (June 2016 - October 2017)
Lanaograd (January 2015 - June 2016)
Wendel (January 2013 - January 2015)
Paldrov (February 2012 - January 2013)

1b. Temporary delegates

Klamytappi (Aschente Royal Defense Force, March 2018)
Ecnav Enitsuj (Philippines, December 2017 - January 2018)
Jose maria sison (Socialist States of the Philippines, September 2016)

1c. Usurper delegates

Dread lord sithis (Invader/Raider, November 2018)
Dominus totalis (Invader/Raider, November 2018)
South eastern ossetia (Invader/Raider, March 2018)
A raid for the raid gods (Invader/Raider, December 2017)
Jose maria sison (Usurper, September 2017)
Josei tenno kawaii (Invader/Raider, July 2017)
Nordic showdown (Invader/Raider, September 2016)
Kgb raideron (Invader/Raider, May 2016)
Manny pacman pacquiao (Invader/Raider, February 2016)
Crawford notch (Invader/Raider, November 2015)
Bassin (Invader/Raider, March 2015)
Wendel (Usurper, March 2014)

2. Delegate and Secretary-General
Ariusgrad (January 31, 2012 - February 5, 2012)
Elected: January 31, 2012

Vice Delegate and Assistant Secretary-General
Maharlika islands (January 2012 - February 2012)

3. Delegate and Secretary-General
Rochester-marner (September 17, 2011 - January 28, 2012)
Elected: N/A

Vice Delegate and Assistant Secretary-General
Maharlika islands (September 2011 - January 2012)

4. Delegate and Secretary-General
Guiuan (June 17, 2011 - September 17, 2011)
Elected: N/A

Vice Delegate and Assistant Secretary-General
Maharlika islands (June 2011 - September 2011)

5. Delegate and Secretary-General
Sky cylcone (January 17, 2011 - June 17, 2011)
Elected: May 31, 2011

Vice Delegate and Assistant Secretary-General
Maharlika islands (May 2011 - June 2011)

6. Delegate
Justinianople (October - December 2010)

7. Delegate
Wolficity (August - October 2010)

8. Delegate
Vatican xiii (June - July 2010)

9. Delegate
Seendeal (June 2010)

10. Delegate
Calamba rebirth (January - May 2010)

11. Delegate
Vacant (September 2009 - January 2010)

12. Delegate
Calamba rebirth (February - September 2009)

13. Delegate
Farah valde (January - February 2009)

14. Delegate
The hordunstat (December 2008 - January 2009)

15. Delegate
Vatican xiii (September - December 2008)

16. Delegate
Aeibeiria (July - August 2008)

17. Delegate
Proconsul multyfarnham (April - June 2008)

18. Delegate
Eireann go brach (August 2007 - April 2008)

19. Delegate
Vatican xiii (July 2007)

20. Delegate
Spongecola (January - July 2007)

21. Delegate
The normandy islands (November 2006 - January 2007)

22. Delegate
Corona del gente (October 2006)

23. Delegate
Seendeal (September - October 2006)

24. Delegate
Superferry 14 (July - August 2006)

25. Delegate
Lenshow (May - July 2006)

26. Delegate
Ma-i (April - May 2006)

27-30. Month of Four Delegates
Guiuan (August 2005 - April 2006)
Muove (August 2005)
Kgb-cia-mi6 (August 2005)
Zonyasdao (August 2005)

31. Delegate
Einfuhlung (April - August 2005)

32. Delegate
Pili-nuts (January - April 2005)

33. Delegate
Mindanaw (June - December 2004)

34. Delegate
Hukbalahap (November 2003 - June 2004)

35. Delegate
Pancit canton (October - November 2003)

36. Delegate
The philippines1 (July - October 2003)

37. Delegate
Elvaraland (May - July 2003)

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Authored by Lanaograd and the Regional Affairs Ministry, commissioned under the administration of Ariusgrad. Drafted in cooperation with the Philippines ministries. All rights reserved.