by Max Barry

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by The Holy Green Nationstates Isle of Ko-oren. . 349 reads.


Typically, Ko-orenite history is divided into several eras:
1. The land before man, era without humans (until 20,000 years ago)
2. The pre-state, era of hunter-gatherers and early agriculture (20,000 years ago until 8,000 years ago)
3. The four-cities kingdom, era of the early state, and early agriculture in Ko-oren's periphery (8,000 years ago until 4,000 years ago)
4. The bay confederacy, era of early trade among bay city states, and first golden age in science and arts (4,000 years ago until 2,500 years ago)
5. The peripheral mapping, era of the periphery catching up with the urban centres (2,500 years ago until 2,000 years ago)
6. The first Ko-oren, era of unification, second golden age in science and arts (2,000 years ago until 1,500 years ago)
7. The foreign influence, era of stagnation, foreign influx of language and culture (1,500 years ago until 1,000 years ago)
8. The second Ko-oren, era of rebirth, a surge in science, arts, philosophy, statesmanship, following native and foreign ideas (1,000 years ago until 500 years ago)
9. The emission, era of exportation, exploration, and independence of Ko-oren's periphery (500 years ago until 300 years ago)
X. The silence before the storm, era of little improvement, stagnation, and crisis (300 years ago until 200 years ago)
=. The industrial commonwealth, era of reunification, and a boom in population and science, closely followed by the arts, philosophy, etc (200 years ago until 100 years ago)
0. The third Ko-oren, era of a state built on the philosophy of the previous Ko-orens, and an era of international contribution (100 years ago until now)

1 Land Before Man
Beginning of time until 20000 years ago
An ice age ended, and for a brief moment the climate of the Ko-orenite islands was habitable enough to welcome newcomers from the Atlantian Oceanian continent, while at the same time there was still a land bridge for these newcomers to use. The islands themselves look much like they do now, with the exception of some shorelines and land bridges, but these have not impacted human history. They were, however, very important for flora and fauna moving around the region, with some animals appearing on some islands but not on others, depending on the post-ice age land bridges and before the advent of mankind.
The first signs of human creativity are found around the south coast, from Surbourneshire to Finisterre, as well as in the Amandine region, and up along the bay coast of Cote Austral towards the subdivision of Mayara. The Amandine is home to the oldest human expressions of culture, from rudimentarily decorated stone tools to cave paintings, simple human-like figurines, and so on. There appears to be some evidence that humans arriving from the Atlantian Oceanian continent came in separate waves.
Key figures
None known.
Key events
~29000 years ago: first evidence of human activity on Ko-orenite soil
~23000 years ago: arrival of second (or arguably third) wave of humans
~21000 years ago: evidence of small village-like social structures
Cultural icons from this era
- The idea of very early prehistoric humans
- Amandine cave paintings
- Prehistoric villages of Drannet
- Statues of Slatework
- Prehistoric villages of Kenningrath
- Findings at Borroux
- Findings at Marluire
Contemporary opinion about this era
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers, yet not seen as the forerunners of the modern Ko-orenite state.

2 Pre-State Era
20000 years ago until 8000 years ago (6000 BCE)
Hunting and gathering vs. agriculture
Early human settlements vs. the elements, seasons, and animals
In a warmer climate, looking more and more like the current climate, humans spread further and further. Signs of human activity have been found in Mawryshire, Surbourneshire (two southern, coastal, warm regions), Finisterre (southern, coastal, arid), Cote Austral, Mayara (central, coastal, temperate), Gehrenna (central, landlocked, temperate). It seems that the large mountain range on Ko-oren's west was impassable for them, and they also did not cross a rough region covered by rivers (the April Basin).
Numerous nets, hooks, arrowheads, and other stone tools have been found all along the mainland coast, from Mawryshire, round Finisterre, and up the coast of Cote Austral and Mayara. The further inland you go, the more recent findings become and the more agricultural they become. Dwellings seem to have been entirely made of organic material, so none remains.
Simple bartering systems, presumably. Different species of fish are native to different places, and inland fruits and vegetables differ from coastal varieties. After agriculture started inland and on the southern coast, different varities were available in more areas.
Key figures
None known.
Key events
~7000 BCE: first agricultural activity
Cultural icons from this era
- Cabeostwyth burial mounds
- Llaneybyder burial mounds
- Slatework burial mounds
- Maugneux burial mounds
- Esporro cairns
- Amillon cairns
- Mawryshire pottery culture
- Whitly Bridge pottery culture
- Uryver pottery culture
- Yrolis pottery culture
- Maethoru pottery culture
- Tathsoren cairns
Contemporary opinion about this era
Not yet seen as the forerunners of the modern Ko-orenite state.

3 Four-cities Kingdom
6000 BCE to 2000 BCE
Tribes vs. tribes for the best land
Humans, now living in one place year-round, stuck to the easiest places to live in, sticking to the same areas as in the previous era. In addition, the April Basin was traversed and the southern coast of Intermare was dotted with settlements soon after. The western mountain range, the Intermare plains, and the northeastern mountain range remained natural boundaries that people did not cross. Evidence of human life on the islands of Yoshima dates back to this era, too.
Small chiefdoms, the ascent of city-states. Usually one person, or a family, was responsible for overseeing public works such as irrigation canals, or the building of new dwellings. When a town became too large, it was split in two, with the smaller group sent off to settle a new area, and choosing its own leader (family). Soon, however, towns became cities and got larger and larger, forming the first few culturally, economically, and diplomatically dominant cities of the archipelago - in Gehrenna, Mayara, and Maethoru.
Most of Ko-oren had/has a friendly climate, which meant that life was fairly easy to sustain in all populated areas. Settlements sprung up and split when they became too large, for there was still more than enough room to sustain another tribe. There was little competition, too. Burial rites were minimal, and art was restricted to small items and tokens that were probably brightly coloured and decorated. People did seem to take effort in putting together gardens, experimenting with flowers and soil. Permanent settlement of the capital cities on the western side of the Bay was far later than originally thought, as evidenced by this finding by B.A.S.
More advanced bartering systems between tribes.
Key figures
Nuhta, chief of Mayara
Tehthabish, chief of Dahrinu
Koshun, chief of Arlerou ('Alaruh')
Yehgidah, chief of Iron Vale ('Ayanbehl')
Rukhadh, Pohthar, Malgeses, Targatha, Olmuhbar - chiefs of Gehrenna
Sayanu, Buhreda, Dahlmi, Mitrashu - chiefs of Mayara
Shisakhu, Baldahr, Buldeh, Beredahl - chiefs of Aminey
Athashasa, Tehreda, Taragethu, Halgakh - chiefs of Amillon
Various other chiefs: Indhikar, Dhini, Nirohma, Lahepta, Ismur, Shankhan, Habahgeru, Balgamaht, Moshaha, Orgergu, Geyagas, Balgahs
Key events
6000 BCE: first permanent settlements
4300 BCE: first settlements in Intermare
4000 BCE: Dahrinu permanently settled
3500 BCE: public works of Thorpeness, first river alterations
3200 BCE: settlement of Crasmere, the community furthest up the western mountains
2900 BCE: settlement of more powerful and larger tribes on the Bay of Ko-oren (Gehrenna, Mayara, Biney, Aminey, Amillon, Laringen, Granon)
2400 BCE: seeds and other items found in Kitarra, suggesting there were expeditions up the west coast from Mawryshire
2200 BCE: several Bay of Ko-oren settlements reach a population in the tens of thousands
2050 BCE: several Intermare material found in places on the southern shore of the Bay, suggesting extensive trade between settlements
Cultural icons from this era
- Rukhadh is sometimes credited as the first king of any Ko-orenite area.
- First stone buildings on many sites along the Bay of Ko-oren.
- Gardens, places of worship, public works along many rivers.
- Trade
Contemporary opinion about this era
Power shifts to the Bay of Ko-oren, where it arguably still lies today.

4 Bay Confederacy
2000 BCE until 500 BCE
Supremacy within the Bay Confederacy; Confederacy vs the lands beyond
Most of the archipelago has been settled now, and villages dot the landscape, especially around the coasts. Around the Bay, we start seeing larger cities, as long as they can feed into the trade network there. Settlements in the south-central area start to grow as well. The western coast sees some human activity, as does the northern coast. Yoshima's islands only have coastal towns, of which some act as a hub for regional trade.
More integrated economies between city states on the Bay converted into a single centrally administered government. Autonomy stays with the city states to some extent, though. The central government is formed by one representative from each city state, though the four capital cities (Gehrenna, Mayara, Maethoru, Senoren) were overrepresented from the start. The hinterland of each city is poorly integrated with the confederacy in general, starting up services by the Rangers, a group of people who have tasked themselves with (internal) border control. Some small skirmishes between the confederacy and the frontier lands beyond necessitate better border control by the central government, but they do not answer the call. Other than that, many public works connect the cities over land as well as over sea.
Symbolism on coins, clothing pins, and stone blocks suggest that beliefs are shared between cities. Even a religion of which some rites are shared across the Bay seems to have started up, related to modern day Monradhity. Building styles seem inspired by the climate more than sharing architecture between cities. The north sees longer buildings, with living quarters in dug out lower floors, businesses on one end of the building, and storage in upper levels. The west and south utilise tulou-like structures (circular shared housing). Further south, remains of larger planned single-story buildings have been found.
The city states involved in the confederacy were comparably rich, even for the lower classes. The frontier lands followed next, as they supplied the cities with luxury resources. City state hinterlands were next, contributing to their cities but not getting much back - let alone the lack of border control. Lands beyond the frontier were poorest and had little trade to speak of.
Key figures
Leaders of the Bay Confederacy: Ahdarah, Ahdarah II, Halgakh II, Iridhni, Nerahmu, Girges, Hurahmih, Sharguthin, Garkutan, Kaulgarath, Gahtagun
Leaders of the Rangers: Bi Derguth, Tahau Rehmuhgah, Bi Terehma, O Laugahrin, Aule Eguhrash, Durgithen
Key events
1974 BCE: establishment of the Bay Confederacy
1904 BCE: establishment of the Rangers
1740 BCE: early Yoshiman city states
1595 BCE: establishment of Willowbourne
1572 BCE: establishment of Greencaster
1460-1320 BCE: skirmishes on northeastern border
1350-1270 BCE: skirmishes on southern border
1100 BCE: evidence of Monradhity rites
Cultural icons from this era
- Ahdarah as the 'first leader of Ko-oren'
- Rangers are still around
- public works between capital cities
- northeastern housing
- tulou-like housing
Contemporary opinion about this era
First golden age of a united Ko-oren

5 Periphery Era
6 Unification
7 Foreign Arrivals
8 Rebirth
9 Exploration and Exports
X Stagnation and Crisis
= Industrialisation and Reunification
0 International Ko-oren